Birkbeck, C & LaFree, G 1993, ‘The situational analysis of crime and deviance’, Annual Reviews Inc., vol. 19, pp. 113-137.
Journal discusses the idea that crime and deviance are either situational or dispositional. This could relate to the context and upbringing of an individual and their susceptibility to crime.
Cassidy, T 2003, Environmental Psychology, Psychology Press, East Sussex
This Book provides an understanding how physical and social factors are linked to human behaviour and experience. Designers need to understand about an individuals response so as to create the best design. This book would be useful for a greater understanding on how people react differently to design.
Fowler, E.P. 1987, ‘Management and city design’, Social Forces, vol. 66, no. 2, pp. 365-389.
Explores the relationship between human behaviour and physical environment. Does this have any relation to how we as individuals respond to different things, e.g. design, graffiti.
Jarjoura, G. R., Tripplett, R.A. & Brinker, G.P. 2002, ‘Growing up poor: examining the link between persistent childhood poverty and delinquency’, Journal of Quantitative Criminology, vol. 18, no. 2, pp. 159-187.
Journal discusses the research that suggests poverty and delinquency are related. Upbringing of individual could be responsible for increasing chances of becoming involved in delinquency.
Krivo, L.J., & Peterson, R.D. 1996, ‘Disadvantaged neighbourhoods and urban crime’, Social Forces, vol. 75, no. 2, pp. 619-648.
Talks about areas of poor poverty and the high levels of crime – related? Useful for highlighting that some areas are worse hit than others for crime e.g. graffiti - possibly an explanation to this.
Leventhal, T & Brooks-Gunn, J 2003, ‘Children and youth neighbourhood context’, American Psychological Society, vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 27-31.
Discusses the neighbourhoods in which we are raised and their effects on personality. This in turn could affect how we respond to design so may be useful in understanding the influential things responsible.
Mackintosh, P.G. 2005, ‘The development of higher urban life’ and the geographic imagination: beauty, art, and moral environmentalism in Toronto 1900-1920’, Journal of Historical Geography, pp. 688-721.
This journal talks about how art can shape human behaviour. Relates to context and setting discussed in Brainstorm. Although this source was only published in 2005, the content is from 1900-1920 and may be slighted out of date for what I am to discuss.
Manco, T 2002, Stencil Graffiti, Thames & Hudson, London.
Discusses the history of graffiti and why ‘artists’ choose to participate in this illegal game. Might prove useful if talking about why people use graffiti as a means of communication. Also looks at specific areas where graffiti is e.g. London and Brooklyn.
Smith, S.J. 1984, ‘Crime and the structure of social relations’, Transactions of the institute of British Geographers, vol. 9, no. 4, pp.427-442.
Talks about how lifestyles and community patterns effect crime. Some areas are more susceptible to crime than others and this journal tries to help and explain this. Might be useful in trying to explain why people graffiti and commit crimes in certain areas more than others.
Stephen, S 2006, Designing safer places, Edinburgh, The Scottish Executive.
This report from the Scottish Executive talks about the different measures that are being taken when designing communities. Small changes in the way in which thing are built can have a lasting impression on our neighbourhoods. This would be useful in looking at specific examples of prevention of crime, etc.
Taylor, R.B. 1996, ‘Neighbourhood responses to disorder and local attachments: the systemic model of attachment, social disorganization, and neighbourhood use value’,
Sociological Forum, vol. 11, no.1, pp. 41-74.
Discusses how neighbourhoods respond to disorder and the social involvement among them. Important areas may be researched into how communities respond to things. Different neighbourhoods have a different mix of people living in them and these are presented.
Website sources (discipline related):
Dezeen Architecture and Design Magazine:
Royal Academy of Arts:
Website sources (Non field related):
Science News from New Scientist:
BBC News (includes Television and Radio):